Liquidity-constrained index tracking optimization models SpringerLink


Banks whose Capital to Risk-weighted Assets Ratio (CRAR) is at least 25% more than the minimum CRAR (9%), i.e. 11.25% as on March 31, of the previous year, are allowed to have a higher limit up to 300% of the net worth for IBL. The limit prescribed above will include only fund based IBL within India (including inter-bank liabilities in foreign currency to banks operating within India). The above limits will not include collateralized borrowings under Collateralized Borrowing and Lending Obligation (CBLO) and refinance from NABARD, SIDBI, etc. The BoD or its delegated committee of board members should oversee the establishment and approval of policies, strategies and procedures to manage liquidity risk, and review them at least annually. The Basel III liquidity standards are currently subject to an observation period/revision by the BCBS with a view to addressing any unintended consequences that the standard may have for financial market, credit extension and economic growth.

In investment terms, assessing accounting liquidity means comparing liquid assets to current liabilities, or financial obligations that come due within one year. Accounting liquidity measures the ease with which an individual or company can meet their financial obligations with the liquid assets available to them—the ability to pay off debts as they come due. A fully centralised model is rare in practice, liquidity management as the daily operations of a group’s branches and subsidiaries necessitate a minimum of independence to manage local cash flows. Currently, the IBL of a bank should not exceed 200% of its net worth as on 31st March of the previous year. However, individual banks may, with the approval of their BoDs, fix a lower limit for their inter-bank liabilities, keeping in view their business model.

The Refinitiv Labs Liquidity Discovery project is helping to explore new ways to discover market liquidity, and we are continuously seeking customer feedback to fine-tune this living prototype. Price impact
Price impact indicates the correlation between incoming orders to buy or sell, and the corresponding price changes. Buy trades may push prices up and incur extra costs for large trading firms, which is why monitoring and controlling price impact is critical in quantitative finance. Traders can use these market liquidity insights to improve their algorithms and make better decisions on manual orders. The Refinitiv Labs Liquidity Discovery project started as a single Jupyter Notebook, with the goal of providing real-time insights into liquidity conditions encoded in LOBs.

Tracking liquidity

The results of these stress tests for a single insurer are compared to the results of other insurers offering similar policies. In order to manage the firm’s liquidity effectively, corporate treasury and finance teams need to have a clear view of the company’s cash position, as this will help them identify any liquidity gaps that need to be addressed. This means finding a solution for fast cash positioning and carrying out real-time cash modeling and forecasting. Similarly, foreign banks operating in India should also be self reliant with respect to liquidity maintenance and management. In case of extreme stress situation, parent entity/Head Office support may be relied upon. However, the possible constraints with respect to transferability of funds from the parent entity/Head Office, including possible time lag in availability of funds may be taken into account while factoring this as a source of funds in contingency funding plan.

Financial analysts look at a firm’s ability to use liquid assets to cover its short-term obligations. Generally, when using these formulas, a ratio greater than one is desirable. Although decentralised funding strategy may lead to a higher cost for banks, greater decentralization of funding may leave the banks less exposed to intra-group contagion and contagion across jurisdictions. Evidence from the global financial crisis also supports the view that banks pursuing a more decentralised model were somewhat less affected by the funding problems than those operating a more centralised funding model. The limit on the call money borrowings as prescribed by RBI for Call/Notice Money Market Operations will operate as a sub-limit within the above IBL limits.

Certain critical ratios in respect of liquidity risk management and their significance for banks are given in the Table 1 below. Banks may monitor these ratios by putting in place an internally defined limit approved by the Board for these ratios. The industry averages1 for these ratios are given for information of banks. They may fix their own limits, based on their liquidity risk management capabilities, experience and profile. The stock ratios are meant for monitoring the liquidity risk at the solo bank level.

There are several ratios that measure accounting liquidity, which differ in how strictly they define liquid assets. Analysts and investors use these to identify companies with strong liquidity. In the example above, the rare book collector’s assets are relatively illiquid and would probably not be worth their full value of $1,000 in a pinch.

Xvii) A bank should have a formal contingency funding plan (CFP) that clearly sets out the strategies for addressing liquidity shortfalls in emergency situations. A CFP should delineate policies to manage a range of stress environments, establish clear lines of responsibility, and articulate clear implementation and escalation procedures. I) A bank should establish a robust liquidity risk management framework. As a more accessible option for individual investors, TradingView excels with its balance of depth and user-friendliness. The platform provides a robust array of charting tools, including real-time tracking of liquidity across several markets.

Banks should endeavor to develop a process to quantify liquidity costs and benefits so that these same may be incorporated in the internal product pricing, performance measurement and new product approval process for all material business lines, products and activities. This will help in aligning the risk taking incentives with the liquidity risk exposure and Board approved risk tolerance of individual business lines. Measures the extent to which volatile money supports bank’s basic earning assets.

Liquidity sourcing specialists
According to a 2019 survey by JP Morgan, “liquidity tops the list of daily trading issues” for the company’s foreign exchange clients. Sophisticated traders
With markets getting smarter, many trading strategists use sophisticated models based on quantitative analysis for trading opportunities. According to the 2020 Algorithmic Trading Market report, over 60 percent of U.S. equity market trades are guided by algorithmic trading. For one thing, internal stakeholders are not always prompt in providing the information needed to build the forecast.

  • They either require banks generally to raise long-term resources so as to reduce the levels of maturity mismatches or stipulate prudential ceilings or tolerance limits on the maturity mismatches permitted to them.
  • Cash is universally considered the most liquid asset because it can most quickly and easily be converted into other assets.
  • Measures the extent to which volatile money supports bank’s basic earning assets.
  • It should, therefore, identify events that could have an impact on market and public perceptions about its soundness and reputation.
  • It’s a fundamental concept in the financial market, ensuring transactions occur smoothly and efficiently.
  • A more accurate view of market liquidity leads to better algorithmic trading decisions.

Having liquidity is important for individuals and firms to pay off their short-term debts and obligations and avoid a liquidity crisis. If markets are not liquid, it becomes difficult to sell or convert assets or securities into cash. You may, for instance, own a very rare and valuable family heirloom appraised at $150,000. However, if there is not a market (i.e., no buyers) for your object, then it is irrelevant since nobody will pay anywhere close to its appraised value—it is very illiquid. It may even require hiring an auction house to act as a broker and track down potentially interested parties, which will take time and incur costs.

For companies that operate in multiple countries and currencies, and hold accounts with many different financial institutions, managing liquidity can be particularly complex. Effective bank liquidity management means using a centralized process to obtain full visibility over the company’s liquidity. Efficiency, meanwhile, can be achieved by using new methods to improve connectivity with sources of information about the company’s cash. Banks should have a measurement, monitoring and control system for liquidity positions in the major currencies in which they are active. For assessing the liquidity mismatch in foreign currencies, as far as domestic operations are concerned, banks are required to prepare Maturity and Position (MAP) statements according to the extant instructions. These statements have been reviewed and the reporting requirements have been revised as given in Appendix II (Liquidity Return, Part A2).

When liquidity is high, markets are robust and resilient, making it easier for investors to buy and sell assets at fair prices. We present in this Appendix a statistical analysis to support the aforementioned arguments in favor of using the liquidity-constrained approach for index tracking. To this end, we test the difference between the average daily liquidity of the liquidity-constrained portfolios against that of the benchmark portfolio. The goal is to verify if the out-of-sample average daily liquidity of the liquidity-constrained portfolios differs from that of the benchmark portfolios which are liquidity-unrestricted. All of these risks can affect the company’s liquidity position in different ways. Corporate treasury teams use a variety of different strategies to manage the risks faced by the organization, and protect the company’s cash from any negative or adverse changes.